The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO

TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) is the largest fully independent Research, Development and Consultancy organization in the Netherlands with a staff of about 3,200 and a total annual turnover of about 520 million Euros. Its primary tasks include support and assistance of trade and industry including SME’s, governments and others in technological innovation and in solving problems by rendering services and transferring knowledge and expertise. TNO provides contract research and specialist consultancy as well as grant licenses for patents and specialist software. Also TNO tests and certifies products and services, and issues an independent evaluation of quality.

TNO has clustered its activities in five themes: Healthy Living, Industry, Defence, Safety & Security, Energy, and Urbanisation. SURE falls under the theme Energy, discipline group Sustainable Geo-Energy. Together with CCS and Energy Policies, all Geothermal activities of TNO are concentrated in this Department where technology is being developed for cost-effective geothermal technologies. In addition to technology components, TNO also provides economic analysis, risk assessment and regulatory advice on implementing geothermal energy.